About Cholera

“Even when people have been treated, the risk of re-infection remains high…Cholera can be treated quickly and people can get better quickly but the challenge is ensuring they don’t get re-infected and clean drinking water needs to be available.” Paul Garwood, WHO


MSPP Instructions for Cholera Reporting  inside Haiti
Click here for PDF Version of the Form
Click Here for HTML Version of the Form
Form instructions state to “Please fill out and e-mail this form daily or weekly to the following address:   MSPPEPISURV@GMAIL.COM
For information (8am-4pm): 3701-9136
Cholera cases can be called into 37019136 or  37019135

Recent  Reports from MSPP

  • Reports of November 4, 2010
  • Rapports_1.11 web
  • Rapports_2.11 web
  • Rapports_3.11 web
  • Rapports_30.10.web
  • Rapports_31.10 web
  • Fact investigation of suspected cases of cholera
  • Advice and recommendations from the MSPP as part of Cholera Epidemic
  • Memorandum on the management of cholera
  •  

    Radio Messages from Haiti MSPP

    101026 Messages Radio MSPP Promotion d’hygiène Part 1
    101026 Messages Radio MSPP Promotion d’hygiène Part 2


    Key Points in English / Principaux Points Français via WHO (World Health Organization)

    • Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease, which can kill within hours if untreated.
    • According to estimates, there are each year 3 to 5 million cases of cholera, with 100 000-120 000 deaths.
    • We can successfully treat up to 80% of cases with oral rehydration salts.
    • The effective control measures based on prevention, preparedness and response.
    • The supply of safe water and sanitation are essential to reduce the impact of cholera and other waterborne diseases.
    • Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The short incubation period (period of development of the microbe after infection), two hours to five days, reinforces the dynamics potentially explosive epidemics.
    • This is the great disease “dirty hands”, the neglect of the sanitation and food chain. Bowel movements that lead to human cultivation of citrus land, water sources, by the sea and its products (the vibrio can survive over 15 days in salt water) … All of which can be amplified by the carriage by flies, and especially by the direct inter-human contacts.

    Symptoms

    • Cholera is a highly virulent disease. Affecting children and adults, it can die within hours.
    • About 75% of those infected with V. cholera no symptoms, although the bacterium is present in their feces for 7-14 days after infection and was eliminated in the environment where it can potentially infect other people.
    • For those who develop symptoms, they remain mild to moderate in 80% of cases, while in approximately 20% of cases, acute watery diarrhea, accompanied by severe dehydration develops. Without treatment, it can cause death.
    • Subjects with low immunity, undernourished children and people living with HIV for example, are at greater risk of death if infected.

    Treatment

    • It is an easy disease to treat. Can cure up to 80% of patients by administering rapid oral rehydration salts. In cases of severe dehydration, infusion of intravenous fluid is needed. These patients also require appropriate antibiotics to shorten the duration of diarrhea, reduce the quantities of rehydration fluid required and shorten the duration of excretion of bacilli. We do not recommend the mass administration of antibiotics because it has no effect on the spread of the disease and helps to strengthen the resistance.

    Prevention

    • Ensure that the food was well cooked and are still hot when served.
    • Avoid raw foods: fruits and vegetables “cook, peel, or leave them”
    • Outlawing seafood, especially shellfish.
    • Outlaw milk and milk products not industrial (universal rule, not only vis-à-vis the cholera); unpasteurized milk should always be boiled.
    • Apart from the drinking water industry, all water must be considered a priori dangerous and should be either boiled or disinfected; outlaw ice not made from such waters safe.
    • Hand washing (25 seconds)-short nails with soap before handling food

    En Francais

    Principaux Points

    Le choléra est une maladie diarrhéique aiguë, dont on peut mourir en quelques heures en l’absence de traitement. Selon les estimations, il y a chaque année 3 à 5 millions de cas de choléra, avec 100 000 à 120 000 décès. On peut réussir à traiter jusqu’à 80% des cas avec les sels de réhydratation orale. Les mesures de lutte efficaces s’appuient sur la prévention, la préparation et la riposte. L’approvisionnement en eau sûre et l’assainissement sont essentiels pour réduire l’impact du choléra et des autres maladies à transmission hydrique. Le choléra est une infection diarrhéique aiguë provoquée par l’ingestion d’aliments ou d’eau contaminés par le bacille Vibrio cholerae. La brève période d’incubation (Période de développement du microbe après l’infection), de deux heures à cinq jours, renforce la dynamique potentiellement explosive des épidémies. C’est la grande maladie “des mains sales”, de l’incurie de la sanitation et de la chaîne alimentaire. Défécations humaines qui aboutissent aux terrains de culture des agrumes, aux sources d’eau, en bord de mer et à ses produits (le vibrion peut survivre plus de 15 jours en eau salée)… Le tout pouvant être amplifié par le transport par les mouches, et surtout par les contacts inter-humains directs.

    Symptômes

    • Le choléra est une maladie extrêmement virulente. Touchant les enfants comme les adultes, on peut en mourir en quelques heures.
    • Environ 75% des sujets infectés par V. cholerae ne manifestent aucun symptôme, bien que le bacille soit présent dans leurs selles pendant 7 à 14 jours après l’infection et soit éliminé dans l’environnement, où il peut potentiellement infecter d’autres personnes.
    • Pour ceux qui manifestent des symptômes, ceux-ci restent bénins à modérés dans 80% des cas, tandis que chez environ 20% des cas, une diarrhée aqueuse aiguë, s’accompagnant de déshydratation sévère, se développe. En l’absence de traitement, elle peut entraîner la mort.
    • Les sujets ayant une faible immunité, enfants souffrant de malnutrition ou personnes vivant avec le VIH par exemple, sont davantage exposés au risque de mort en cas d’infection.

    Traitement

    C’est une maladie facile à traiter. On peut guérir jusqu’à 80% des sujets atteints en leur administrant rapidement les sels de réhydratation orale. En cas de déshydratation très sévère, la perfusion de liquide par voie intraveineuse s’impose. Ces patients nécessitent également des antibiotiques adaptés pour raccourcir la durée de la diarrhée, diminuer les quantités de liquide de réhydratation nécessaires et écourter la durée de l’excrétion des bacilles. On ne recommande pas l’administration de masse des antibiotiques, car elle n’a aucun effet sur la propagation de la maladie et contribue à renforcer les résistances.

    Prévention

    • S’assurer que les aliments ont été bien cuits et qu’ils sont encore bien chauds lorsqu’ils sont servis.
    • Eviter les aliments crus : fruits et légumes : “faites les cuire, pelez-les, sinon laissez-les”
    • Proscrire les fruits de mer, tout particulièrement les coquillages.
    • Proscrire lait et produits laitiers non industriels (règle universelle, pas seulement vis-à-vis du choléra) ; le lait non pasteurisé doit toujours être bouilli.
    • En dehors des eaux de boisson industrielles, toute eau doit être considérée a priori comme dangereuse et doit être soit bouillie, soit désinfectée ; proscrire les glaçons non fabriqués avec de telles eaux sécurisées.
    • Se laver les mains (pendant 25 secondes ) -ongles courts- au savon avant toute manipulation d’aliments.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    1. October 22, 2010 at 9:16 pm

      Artibonite: Global DIRT hopes to install a Noah Water Purification System

      Submitted by kdriscoll on Fri, 10/22/2010 – 21:27
      The recent and rapidly growing epidemic of cholera in Northern Haiti has grabbed the attention of the Global DIRT medical team. We have already sent a team to Artibonite to gather information and assess which specific aid will be required in the area. Primarily, Global DIRT hopes to install a Noah Water Purification System in the affected area to clean up the drinking water of the displaced persons and curb further outbreaks of cholera. The NOMAD Purification system is capable of producing 136,000 liters of potable water daily.

    2. October 22, 2010 at 9:20 pm

      @LoriHCG Water Missions has 3 H2O sites up & running per MT @JerryMiner Locations: Bo Cozele, Poirier & a 3rd site near there

    3. Susan Davis
      October 22, 2010 at 9:46 pm

      Patients with diarrhea often think that drinking liquids will make the diarrhea worse. Not True!! They are losing body fluids and need to replace them immediately!! Drink juice or oral rehdryation solution. Cholera germs can’t thrive in acidic environment — lime or lemon juice, or vinegar can help prevent germ fro growing in the body. More cholera food tips here: http://bit.ly/aW5aW7

    4. Susan Davis
      October 22, 2010 at 9:57 pm

      That link I gave for diet in cholera is from 1905 so consider that before using the advice.

    5. Duane Navarre
      October 22, 2010 at 11:05 pm

      Due to the fact there are millions of ppl there in Haiti and
      it might overload the capacity of the aid groups, SODIS would
      help but should be tested before deployed.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_water_disinfection

      Another option is boiling, but electric is not available for all,
      or wood, or fuel. But you can still boil with a makeshift
      solar oven.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_oven

      A slow sand filter like they use in the UK would be a good
      cheap way but it is more long term and would require more
      labor.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slow_sand_filter

      Good Luck to all the good ppl !!!

    6. October 23, 2010 at 9:47 am

      @tonycece: Children receive clean water from @operationbless water purification system in Babou Laporte near St Marc

    7. November 6, 2010 at 6:16 pm

      MSF is supporting two Haitian Ministry of Health hospitals in the Artibonite Region, where the cholera outbreak originated. Medical teams are working in the main hospitals in St. Marc and Petite Riviere. Relevant medical supplies, such as intravenous fluids, catheters, and oral rehydration solution, as well as chlorine for disinfection, are also being provided. But it is outside more populated areas such as these where assistance is especially needed.
      …To bolster health clinics in some of the more outlying areas in the north and center of the country—in places such as Gros Morne—MSF is supplying IV solution, oral rehydration salts, IV sets, and hygiene materials. Supplies have also been provided to the hospital in the town of Port de Paix in the country’s far north.

      http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/news/article.cfm?id=4840&cat=field-news

    8. November 10, 2010 at 11:35 am

      Here is the link to a great video by Dr Jan Gurley on how to create a rehydration formula. Please share with those fighting #cholera in #Haiti http://bit.ly/9T971n

    9. November 10, 2010 at 12:22 pm

      Cholera Transmission Risk in SouthEast Haiti: http://bit.ly/dlq7eS

    10. July 3, 2012 at 10:52 am

      le niger est epidemie!

    11. June 18, 2013 at 1:07 am

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      check things out. I like what I see so i am just following you.
      Look forward to looking over your web page yet again.
      Cheers!

    12. July 16, 2013 at 3:29 pm

      Very good website you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any forums that
      cover the same topics discussed in this article?
      I’d really like to be a part of group where I can get advice from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Appreciate it!

    13. July 21, 2013 at 2:27 am

      Excellent post but I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this subject?
      I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit more. Kudos!

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